National Broadcast by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Prime Minister –May 29, 2015
Good evening dear Thai citizens.
June 1 marks Vesak Day which is a very important occasion in Buddhism. It is the day that commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Lord Buddha. Vesak Day is also recognized by the United Nations as an international day. It is important to all Buddhists in every part of the world. This gives us the opportunity to embrace and disseminate the Lord Buddha’s teachings. We can join in and fly our national and Dharma Chakra flags in a show of faith, make merit, offer alms, uphold Buddhist precepts, and avoid harmful actions. Our merits and deeds will also be made as a tribute to HM the King and other members of the Royal Family. The government, in cooperation with provincial cultural offices, monks, and other morality building community agencies will launch religious activities at Sanam Luang and other locations in 76 provinces nationwide. Not only will these activities enhance the prosperity of us and others around us, it will also promote religious tourism.
This past week, I attended many events which gave me opportunities to meet, exchange, and learn about problems faced many groups, such as farmers, entrepreneurs and executives from chambers of commerce, as well as school students, most of whom expressed interest, understanding and willingness to collaborate with the government in laying down a strong foundation and paving the way for future development. I would like to thank all who have help to spread information on what the government has achieved or is trying to achieve. Our country will move forward if you understand these facts and work together to eliminate social conflicts. The government has issued many policies, from which we hope people of all levels will benefit. In order for us to rise, it would take knowledge, understanding, and HM the King’s principle of a Sufficiency Economy. Despite all this, there are still some lingering concerns. One of them is moving towards a democratic system. We have discussed this many times before. Today, I will quote Prof Michel Troper, a well-known scholar from the University of Paris, who said a military coup does not always sabotage democracy, as in the case for some countries, it has been done in order to prepare a country for a an imminent democratic system. I am not suggesting that this is a good or a bad thing, but many countries have been through this situation before. I want everyone to keep in mind that Thailand for the past 10 year has seen a never-ending political gridlock while its people became even more divided and suffered the consequences. Although previous governments used force and strict laws to end violence, nothing seemed to work. Thailand virtually came to a standstill while its neighbors were speeding up development and preparing for ASEAN. If this was left unaddressed, the problem will ultimately destroy our nation. Our children would have no future. For those who are about to be elected to administer the country, please make sure that you address this problem. Please do not let the Thai people return to fighting with each other again, thus leading to another divided society, without a sense of rule of law, the underprivileged being exploited, widening social disparities and the lack of social justice. Our nation would be weak. The current administration came in when Thailand was facing such circumstances. I want to see Thailand change and walk towards prosperity. I want to see pride and future in our nation. Though not easy, I believe we will achieve what we set out to should we unite, overlook personal interests, put the nation’s interest first, and take part and accept reform. Everything rests on our shoulders. It is up to you whether the government and the NCPO will be able to lay down a firm foundation for Thailand and get this country on a democratic path once again. It depends on every one of us. This is not only for us, but for the sake of our children and the next generations to come. We must build a strong foundation for them. We cannot keep on wasting all resources now and risk weakening our country in the future. How could the next generation cope when our generation causes all these problems and uses up all the resources? If you were to be a politician, you need to have this kind of mindset, or else, these problems will never get fixed.
We must resolve deep-rooted problems together. The government and the NCPO cannot achieve it alone. Like I said, it all depends on the unity we have and the willingness to reconcile. Reconciliation is different from legislation. From now on, there must not be any more violence in our nation.
There is one urgent issue the Thai government will have to address immediately. This matter concerns illegal migration from the Bay of Bengal area. The government has made its stance clear that it will provide humanitarian aids to these migrants. Thai people are kind-hearted and we have always been helpful to others especially our allies. For example, we sent help to the victims of Japan’s tsunami, India’s floods, and Nepal’s earthquakes. We were one of the very first countries to send help. Despite the size of our country, we are willing to lend a helping hand to our friends who are in dire need of support. We will provide at our best capacity. As for the problem of illegal migrants, I think all countries as well as international organizations should join hands to set clear assistance policies, be they health and medical treatment, food supply, and the facilitation of travelling to another destination. Thailand is only a transit country, not their destination. I instructed the Ministry of Defense to establish the Operation Center for Patrol and Humanitarian Assistance to Irregular Migrants in the Indian Ocean (OCPHAM). The center is responsible for 1) patrolling on land, in the air, on the water and 2) setting up floating operating bases to mobilize humanitarian efforts based on international standards and in accordance with illegal immigration laws.
Today, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs hosted a conference dubbed “Irregular Immigration in the Indian Ocean”, opening up an opportunity for all stakeholders to constructively discuss and draw up guidelines to resolve and prevent illegal migration in a more concrete and sustainable way. 16 countries taking part in the conference included Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam, Bangladesh, along with observer states Switzerland and the US, as well as representatives from the UNHCR, International Organization for Migration (IOM), and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The aim of the conference was to accelerate joint efforts to address the issue at the upstream, midstream, and downstream levels under the principle of “international burden sharing”, with an attempt to avoid possible conflicts. The results of the conference will be made known once they become available. I believe we will have answers to all problems. I want to see efforts mobilized in all levels and in both the short and long terms. There will be answers to what to do in the initial phase, where will be budget come from, who will be the implementer, or should we do it in separate ways. All these questions would be answered at the meeting. We cannot tell other countries what to do. They are entitled to their opinions. Our diplomatic relations will not be afflicted by unconstructive news. Problems exist everywhere in every country. If we could just work together, these problems will be rectified. We will not seek any blame but will do our job the best we can. Every life is valuable regardless of nationality and religion.
In order to address the IUU problem, the government has established the Command Center for Combating Illegal Fishing (CCCIF), a special center overseen by the PM. In early May, various government agencies expedited measures to tackle the IUU problem, with the Center for Maintaining National Maritime Interests as the coordinator in cooperation with the Royal Thai Police, Labour Ministry, Fisheries Dept, and Marine Dept. These agencies drew up the national inspection plan for structural adjustments and the revision of related laws. The Fisheries Act, which has recently been passed and will be put into law on June 10, is in line with EU’s regulations and will help us better manage marine resources. On top of that, at least 17 organic laws will be issued. As for overseas factors, the government will seek joint cooperation and agreements with other nations in compliance with international standards.
In terms of stranded and detained fishing crews, the government has been working hard to bring back Thai crews from Ambon Island and other islands in Indonesia. From 1 Oct 2014 to 25 May 2015, the Foreign Affairs Ministry, Royal Thai Embassy in Jakarta, and the Dept of Consular Affairs, were able to bring home a total of 618 fishermen. The last batch was 29 crew members from Ambon Island who came back on May 25. Earlier there were 29 fishermen returning from Benjina Island, 5 from Tarempa Island, and another 5 from Ambon Island. On May 26, the Thai government contacted Indonesia, asking it to issue certificates of identity to the remaining fishing crews so that they could return home. 80 more on Ambon Island are waiting to be transported back. So are another 327 on Benjina Island. These fishermen are going through investigations, the process of which the Thai side has asked the Indonesian government to shorten, so as to allow them to return home as soon as possible.
On behalf of the Royal Thai Government, I would like to thank Indonesia and all its related agencies for your efforts to address the problem that has been overlooked for a long time. We have to differentiate victims from criminals as well as prove their nationality. We must have effective implementation methods, strict regulations, and rehabilitation processes, all of which must be in compliance with international standards. In this context, I do believe that there are more good people than bad. We must encourage good conduct and punish offenders through the law and the justice system. At least, this will set an example for our children and make our country grow. There must not be conflict between law enforcers and law-abiding citizens.
As for the Thai economy, we all know that Thailand heavily relies on its exports while the export sector has been sluggish, caused by economic slowdown among its trading partners especially those countries in Europe and Asia, such as China, whose economy has yet to recover. According to the statistics compiled by the Ministry of Commerce, Thai exports have seen some positive signs, given that in April 2015 the value of Thai exports, excluding oil and gold, grew by 0.1 percent compared to the same period of 2014.
This past week, the Thailand Management Association (TMA) revealed the results of a recent survey conducted based on competitiveness by a Switzerland-based agency, International Institute for Management Development (IMD). Thailand in 2015 is ranked 30 out of 61 surveyed countries around the world, down a notch from 2014. The assessment takes economic performance into account which mainly comprises trade and investment. Thailand’s economic performance is dependent on the world economic situation. We must build stability, encourage innovation, and support SMEs. In spite of this ranking, Thailand has performed better in other areas such as 1) efficiency of state affairs, 2) state financial status, moving from 19th place to 14th, 3) public administration, moving from 39 to 34, 4) social affairs, moving from 55 to 45, and 5) infrastructure development, moving from 48 to 46. We expect to get better every year as there will be more investments to come.
The government will do its best to enhance the competitiveness of the country, improving our logistics system, transportation system, infrastructure, public utilities, market penetration for our goods, product distribution, and policy mobilization, all of which must be expedited in tandem with improvements in the potential of Thai entrepreneurs, who are compelled to improve the quality of their products and increase production capacity as well as comply with the government’s policies aimed at supporting the agricultural industry and SMEs. In this case large enterprises need to guide smaller businesses, and some business might need to partner together. Whatever the case may be, there is a need to support smaller businesses, and support the agricultural sector so that their products can be processed more efficiently and sold at higher prices. We must bring consumers and agriculturists into one circle where the government can actually look after all individuals without them having to rely on grey businesses such as illegal trading. Today a lot of money circulating in grey businesses is spent by people with low incomes. When these businesses are gone, it is common that these people lose a sizeable amount of money and struggle. Should the country allow this circle to go on? Is this justice? Is it fair when a particular group of people who break the law gain and the rest loses? This will only cause conflicts in our society and further damage to our country’s image. These conflicts end up breaking down a peaceful and orderly society and when this happens, you can expect fewer tourists to visit us. There are many tourists visiting Thailand now, in light of the government’s recent adjustments to tourism policy. The government has categorized the tourism sector into clusters. We will try to further develop every sector; production must be able to accommodate the supply chain, which focuses on cost reduction, as well as the value chain, which focuses on consumers and quality products. Should every individual cooperate, I believe that the Thai economy will grow in a sustainable manner. Please disregard the false information that some people (such as politicians from previous governments) have tried to feed you with. Such information just goes to show how they really do not understand the issue or do not have a basic grasp of know-how in order to seriously address these problems. All they want to do is denounce and blame the current government. With this, national resilience is undermined. The rich and the poor will be further apart and more divided. In the meantime, corruption and other illegal activities must be addressed. As well, we will have to face other challenges, such as an economy with less monetary circulation in which the government cannot respond by simply providing cash handouts. Along with building national resilience, every citizen should take part in a cycle where we can all help each other out, where the rich can help the poor. We need to move forward together and stop putting blame on each others. Everyone should love your country. In addressing our national problems, we always listen to what others have to say, be they economists, the public, and scholars. The government has done all of this. The challenge is that external factors are sometimes beyond our control, while internal factors need to be developed and improved. It would be okay if prices and wages are concurrently high, but when these two elements are not in the same range, it will be difficult to sell the products, assuming that wage costs have been driving up the price to the point where it is higher than Thailand’s neighboring countries. When these two factors go in the same direction, prices of products will be uncompetitive. This is why we need to look at the whole system. We cannot look at one particular problem and not the whole picture. In the past, prices as well as the monetary system were distorted. In addition, we should not ignore international indicators such as the Gross National Happiness or GNH Index. This is a good indicator that shows how happy a country can be at the moment. In this index Thailand is listed as one of the happier countries despite being not that wealthy. We must live on the basis of sufficiency. We must have self-awareness and understand how much we can spend. The younger generation must not burden the parents with unreasonable demands for luxury items. You should be aware of how much you can afford, and how your parents earn a living. You should be grateful that parents can afford to send you to school. Education is still your greatest asset. We need to take a step back and think of how things used to be in the past and learn from this. We all struggled before we were able make our lives better. There are rules and regulations that we must obey and adjust ourselves to. There are risks of financial loss and bankruptcy. If you are already successful, you must look back and never leave anyone behind. My principle is that every person has rights and a voice in Thailand.
The matter concerning the electric energy is crucial for us now. Coal power plants cannot be built in Thailand just yet as there remain conflicts. I want to remind you of this. Coal power plants are the cheapest of all the energy plants we can afford. All we need is charcoal and some modern technology that eliminates environmental pollution, which we will have to acquire. We need to rehabilitate the local communities and the areas, making sure that water and soil are not contaminated. Such technology exists in this world. I would like to mention a coal plant in Laos which was built by a Thai company. The plant has already started its operation. Under the agreement, Laos will need to export a certain amount of electricity produced at this plant to Thailand. As you can see, we have to buy energy from overseas as power resources in Thailand decrease, without the presence of sustainable energies. Construction and maintenance of pipelines can cost between 10 and 100 billion baht. This is not easy. For over ten years we have had pipelines and yet they are still not enough. There are certain locations where pipelines cannot reach. We still do not possess adequate capacity to produce batteries for use in storing power produced by alternative means. They all have to be purchased, and this fact drives up the cost. Solar cells that have reached the end of their life cycle constitute electronic waste. The government has issued a bill stipulating that investors in alternative energy must possess waste treatment plans in order for BOI incentives to be offered. Every citizen plays a part in determining total resources expenditure. There is a need to ensure adequate energy security for the nation. There will be no electricity to use if every locality shuns new projects. The purchasing of electricity is also rejected. What are we to do in the future if security issues arise and the gas and electricity feeds are terminated? Help me think of solutions. I do not mind oppositions, but our reasons have to be taken into account. When we are strong enough and are able to produce everything ourselves, our voice will be heeded by others. At present, they are not listening to use because we are not adequately empowered. Electricity is an important factor for the country. The source of such electricity will be determined during further talks. Electricity is used to facilitate consumption and production, and to enable the operations of industries and businesses. We currently use oil and gas to produce 70% of our electricity. We must reduce this percentage by looking at other fuels for electricity production, such as coal and what not. At present, coal is the cheapest. If we continue to use gas and oil, the electricity rate will certainly increase when gas and oil become more expensive. I would like the public to help find a balance, and to have faith in technology. The government will mitigate harmful effects. Coal is still in use in many countries. These countries have, however, switched from older machinery to newer ones and newer technology. The said switch had yielded improvements.
I would like to stress that national reform is a sensitive matter. Many individuals have the good intention of completing various tasks within a short time. This is especially true for the current period, when Article 44 can be invoked. In truth, there are many reform-related activities. The important thing is to bear in mind that human resources have to be managed to facilitate state administration and various operations at present. Efficiency has to be yielded from the relevant individuals. Utilization of grouping, synergy and Section 44 are needed to yield rapid results. Restructuring the entire organizational framework would mean work cannot be performed during the restructuring. I believe the major restructurings should be left for later but the re-organizations need to start now. I have mentioned before that there are three phases of reform by the NCPO and the government. Phases one and two involve the NCPO and the current government. During phase three, matters will be forwarded to the new government.
I will undertake restructuring if it can be achieved at present. An example is the police force and investigative affairs. The positioning needs to be determined. Which agency will be responsible for cases? How will local police forces and those in the central sector be positioned? Each aspect needs to be unraveled, one by one. Part of the force needs to keep operating and tending to the numerous problems at present while reform is undertaken on the remaining portion of the force. More efficiency is coming about – reform is already being undertaken.
During the first phase, obstacles associated with public service were reduced and trust was gained from society and the public. Previously, the police took numerous criticisms. It depends on how we manage the force and remain just in doing so. Appointment of police officials has been improved. I am looking into the feasibility of the use of a council to make appointments of civil servants at the ministry level. Would it be possible to apply a similar method used by the military? The military is governed by the Defense Administration Act. Every unit of the Ministry of Defense submits, at the council’s meeting, the names of individuals to be appointed. If approval is received from more than 2 out of 3 participants at the meeting then the nominated individuals are appointed accordingly. The minister of defense acts as the chairman of the meeting. Adjustments, if made, are made based on discussions at the meeting. A new meeting is called if there are disapprovals. New candidates are nominated at the new meeting, and the same 2 out of 3 approval criteria applies.
I would like this method to apply to the police force and other civil servants. The Board of Royal Thai Police already exists. Does it operate similarly to the military method? People who have advanced through their own field are nominated by their superiors, after which appointments are made based on seniority, capability and sometimes based on a fast-track approach in consideration for the future. There needs to be an appropriate mixture of all three types. Suppose this method is applied at a ministry. The minister would chair the committee. Directors-general and deputies, and permanent secretaries and deputies would be committee members. They will nominate persons under their supervision. The results would perhaps be forwarded to the OPDC or OCSC in the respective organization’s role as secretariat for the committee.
This is an idea suggested by me. It would create more clarity. If this method is applied, a transparent chain of command is established in place of factions. Appointments will be justifiably made. The superiors need to know the qualities of their subordinates to prevent lobbying. Military officials cannot lobby in such a way or pay for appointments. This would prevent a relapse to the dominance of whichever administration that comes into power. Each ministry might set up a group with the power to make appointment to all the positions. This is only a suggestion.
Law enforcement agencies need to be thorough about the exercise of authority and the use of weapons. Adequate supporting measures are needed while a degree of freedom to perform work must be provided. The actions of said agencies would be bound by law and subject to the justice process. The government needs to take responsibility for orders made to these agencies as well.
In conclusion, major issues that still exist by the end of phase 2 will be forwarded to phase 3, which is the new government. The new government will outline its own 1, 2 and 3 phases. Can stipulations be made within the charter or organic laws and what not, to address concerns of reforms not being continued as designated by the National Reform Council? I am not well-versed in law, so I ask that the relevant organizations make arrangements that would allow the reform mechanisms to continue. If discord still prevails then progress cannot be made. All our undertakings are based on the roadmap. The roadmap calls for a constitution. In heeding the demand for a referendum, I have approved of one. The election will follow the referendum. Nobody has asked me about what to do if there is a return of pre-election chaos and if people reject the charter again. What to do if the elected government cannot take office due to opposition by the other faction? I am more concerned over these scenarios than over the charter and other affairs. The NCPO will take responsibility over this issue, and the government will also monitor this situation. I assert that I have been proceeding in accordance with the roadmap.
I have said before that the current charter must not be the source for future conflicts. I have listened to guest speakers from Germany and France who talked about the history of their countries’ charters. They said the constitution should not need too much interpretation. Thai people, the government and the opposition must use the charter in the correct manner. We have to be civilized and refrain from involving the charter in disputes again. Politicians need to exercise good governance. We have had numerous experiences with previous charters. Amendments upon amendments, yet we revert to the status quo. Individuals and political parties have different reactions on the charter. I must ask whether the public’s opinion has been observed. What does the public want? Does it want the country to improve, to stay the same or to degrade? This will be the responsibility of politicians. I have done the best I can.
The new charter must foster a balance between the three branches, and the public will exercise power over all three. The people will be at the center. Previous mention of the public having certain powers does not mean the public forms the 4th branch. The three branches comprise executive, legislative and judicial branches. The people exercise all three powers by electing their representatives. This is the power of the public. The public would be using its power irresponsibly if it makes bad choices in elections. If the public makes good choices, they will be well-cared for and the country will progress forward. This is power usage according to democratic principles. As for the referendum, members of the public will be able to voice their approval or disapproval, based on arrangements to be made by the government. Previously things were entangled and the public was rallied in a way that may have placed them as the authority above everybody else – the government and state officials. The people need to understand that they exercise their power through their representatives through Parliament. This is something that needs to be understood so no more attempts to misguide the people can be made. Do not only look at each party’s policies, but look also at how the party has designed its 5- or 10-year national strategies. Whoever comes into office next will have to continue current work. The parties will be left to building up public support, but at no cost to the nation. Then, forward progress has to be made. This is how every other country has proceeded. They have already quit fighting and using the public as hostages. They allow their people to express their thoughts through representatives or via referendum. The people propose their demands and disapprovals through their representatives. Have the representatives functioned accordingly so far? If not, find ways to make them do so in the future. As for the government, it needs to take responsibility for any occurrences in the country. At present, I take responsibility over economic, security, social, legal and foreign affairs. I cannot deny any single affair or any single group within the populace. Such is the responsibility of any government. I would like to note that the public needs to be cared for with regards to the present day and the future. There are many Thais who have yet to be born. Please also take them into consideration.
Let the present charter amendment process proceed in line with the interim constitution of 2014. Whatever progress can be pursued in accordance with the road map shall be pursued. I will not be the one to postpone the roadmap. The roadmap’s time frame is determined by the public – by the referendum or amendment of the interim charter. I am not hindering any undertaking. I want the country to move forward in a sustainable way. It is now a matter for members of the public to express their opinions without drawing up conflicts. If this cannot be achieved and there is gridlock, then let me know so I can find a solution. But I cannot simply keep exercising authority. I am trying my best to be careful. Our current expectation is for reforms. The reform of the country in all aspects may take many years. I am not aiming to carry out all the reforms myself by staying in office for years. It is something that must be passed on to the next elected government. The public will exercise its power to elect. There have always been demands for reform, both by the public and the past governments. We are already at this point. Are we to stop and revert to what was before? The power is yours. Please use it correctly, according to the established and appropriate channels. Individuals now working at the CDC, NRC and NLA have good intentions for Thailand, but consideration needs to be given to appropriateness for the circumstances. An agreement also needs to be forged with the entire populace. There will be no point to the reforms if future battles ensue between parties that hold differing ideas, and there will be no point for me to be here. I would like to ask this of you one more time.
Let us turn to other affairs. This is the final week of the quality fruits and vegetables fair at Phadung Krung Kasem Canal Market, which has been receiving very positive feedback from the public and consumers. Sales, up until May 26, have almost reached 20 million baht. The next event will be the ornamental plants and fish festival on June 5-28. Ornamental fish and plants will be made available at the fair with consideration to the lifestyle of city dwellers. Decorations and what not will improve the value of the flowers. Decorated aquariums and etc. will also be available. Some items have rather high prices, as they are good enough to be exported. Some farmers have switched to raising ornamental fish and plants as their main income source. Siamese fighting fish, bettas, and gold fish are raised. Flowers arranged on pedestal trays housed in glass jars have beauty that is on par with foreign designs, but with the Thai touch. Please make your visit to have a look. There will be lectures and demonstrations on numerous topics. Professionals will provide advice on the raising of ornamental fish and plants.
Suggestions and designs for gardening will be available from professional garden designers. Another event currently taking place, between May 25-31, is the ‘OTOP: Thai heritage – from hundred to million’ fair, at IMPACT Mueang Thong Thani. This event has to do with value chain creation. In order for the value chain to be created, feasibility of production needs to be determined. So far, the case has been the lack of production capacity. The goods are well-made and numerous orders are made, but production falls short of demand because of the inability to mass produce. It has to be determined whether more machinery and tools are needed and whether cooperatives should be set up. We are aiming for foreign orders. So far, orders for OTOP products exceeding 100 pieces or even 1,000 pieces are met with difficulty or not met. The manufacturing process has to be looked at. Demand and supply must be considered as well. Who will be the buyers if the same unwanted products continue to be produced? Quit doing so, and progress toward becoming SMEs. Utilize His Majesty the King’s sufficiency principles. Excesses in production can be shared with neighbors and large excesses can be sold. A store or company can be set up afterwards. Knowledge and a degree of tolerance need to accompany this development pattern. Information has to be taken in as well. Many ministries have already created channels in What App on mobile devices to report on agriculture matters, prices of goods, crops cultivation and water usage.
On Wednesday, I met athletes and personnel who were heading to the 28th SEA Games in Singapore, which will take place during June 5-16. In the name of the Thai government and the Thai people, I commended the athletes for the achievements leading up to their selection for the event. The government will care for the athletes to its best extent. I offer my moral support for each athlete to do his or her best, and to exercise sportsmanship and abide by the rules and regulations. I ask that athletes also bear in mind they are representing Thailand and they are providing the models for our youths, as well as for those of our neighbors in ASEAN. I would like everyone to do their best.
Present-day sports competition involves sports science, physical and mental prowess, conscience and love for the nation. We also need to consider the ASEAN Community – we can no longer afford conflicts among ourselves. I believe all Thais are ready to offer their moral support to all athletes. Victory and defeat depended on preparation. Re-development efforts will take place to address shortfalls. I assert that our sports scene will be improved in the future. I wish you success in accordance with your established goals, and in bringing fame and victory to Thailand. If these goals are not met, bring back friends at the very least. Then, carry out self-development and re-learn.
I apologize for having used up viewers’ time. I will make my addresses short on days with sports broadcasts. The airing schedule is being adjusted so that I will be the sole speaker on Fridays. Addresses by deputy prime ministers and ministers will air at 6 pm on other weekday evenings. The addresses will be kept from exceeding half an hour. I would like to ask you for your time accordingly.
Thank you and goodbye.